Oompa-Loompas are fictional characters from Roald Dahl's books Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator.
In early editions of the novel, they are shown as African pygmies. Following growing controversy and criticism, in later editions of the book, they are white skinned and golden haired.
They come from Loompaland, which is a region of Loompa, a small isolated island in the Pacific Ocean. The Oompa-Loompas would end up being preyed upon or attacked by Whangdoodles, Hornswogglers and Snozzwangers, which also lived there. Wonka ended up inviting them to work at his factory and get away from their natural predators. In the book, they are the only people Willy Wonka will allow to work in his factory, because of the risk of industrial espionage committed by his candy-making rivals. They are only knee-high, with astonishing haircut, and are paid in their favourite food, cacao bean, which were extremely rare in their island. They insist on maintaining their native clothing: men wear skins, women wear leaves, and children wear nothing (In both movies, they wore typical factory worker uniforms). Only the male Oompa-Loompas are seen working in the factory, though in Quentin Blake's illustrations, both male and female Oompa-Loompas are shown rolling away Violet Beauregarde after her transformation into a blueberry. Presumably the females remain in the village seen briefly from the Great Glass Elevator.
They are also mischievous, love practical jokes, and singing. As each bad child makes his/her exit, they sing moralising songs accompanied by a drum beat, and tend to speak in rhyme.
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Official Site: Roald Dahl
Links: Wikipedia Oompa Loompa Song Lyrics PETO